leaky gut and auto immunity

Leaky Gut and Auto-Immunity

This is part of a series on “leaky gut” (intestinal permeability) to read about what leaky gut is and 11 signs that you have it, read here.

It’s very common for people eating the Standard Australian Diet, or other Western diet, to struggle with gut function and auto-immunity. This does not mean that it’s “normal”, and that we can do nothing about it!

Leaky gut is one of the root causes of many of today’s chronic diseases and has been called a “danger signal for autoimmune diseases”…

How Auto-Immunity begins

When intestinal permeability is increased beyond normal, macro-molecules enter the bloodstream. The immune system, which is always on guard for potential pathogens, is waiting for them! As it doesn’t recognise these macro-molecules, it raises the alarm and the body then makes antibodies to these macro-molecules. If those macro-molecules are gluten, your body makes antibodies to gluten. If it’s dairy, your body makes antibodies to dairy.

OK, so now I have a reaction to a particular food, that’s it right?

That’s just the beginning unfortunately… As human tissue structure appears very similar to the targeted macro-molecule, components of the body’s immune system target one or more types of your own tissue e.g. the thyroid. This is known as molecular mimicry and results in human tissue being damaged as collateral damage, and the process of autoimmunity begins.

The tissue that is the target of the antibodies depends on that person’s weakest link. For instance, gluten cross-reacts with neurological tissue in some people, thyroid tissue in others, and so on. Remember though, the underlying process of auto-immunity is the same whether it is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, or pernicious anemia.

This process continues until the targeted tissue starts to lose function and you go to see the doctor and are then diagnosed with an auto-immune condition. But the actual process may have started years early when the body first started creating these anti-bodies to the macro-molecules and human tissue.

Dr. Alessio Fasano, the chair of pediatric gastroenterology at Massachuesetts General Hospital looks at Celiac disease as a model of auto-immune conditions; The three underlying factors these conditions share are:

  • increased intestinal permeability
  • an environmental trigger e.g. gluten
  • a genetic predisposition

Less than 10% of those with increased genetic disposition progress to a pre-disease state, illustrating the importance of intestinal permeability and environmental triggers in the development of auto-immune diseases.

Intestinal permeability has also been reported to often precede auto-immune diseases.

Why monkeys don’t develop auto-immune diseases…

In 2000, researchers from the University of Maryland School of Medicine identified a protein, called zonulin, which opens gateways, or tight junctions, in the small intestine to let macromolecules into the bloodstream.

Mechanism of Intestinal Permeability

As is typical in the history of immunology, zonulin has been further clarified and renamed as haptoglobin 2 precursor.

“While apes, monkeys and chimpanzees do not have haptoglobin 2, 80 percent of human beings have it… Apes, monkeys and chimpanzees rarely develop autoimmune disorders. Human beings suffer from more than 70 different kinds of such conditions. We believe the presence of this pre-haptoglobin 2 is responsible for this difference between species.”


ALESSIO FASANO, MD

Next, we will discuss how we can reduce intestinal permeability and repair the mucosal firewall using nutrition and lifestyle.


If you are ready to get your health and vitality back so you can lead a better life but need a little bit of help, I offer one-to-one consultation plans. I will help you get to the root cause of your gut issues, and address it with an effective personalised nutrition and lifestyle plan, that is manageable and sustainable, without nasty side effects.

Call 041672091 or email info@fairfieldnutrition.com.au NOW!

IBS Diagnosis

What’s causing your IBS?

Imagine having a condition that severely limits what you can eat, what you can do, and that can strike at any time. Your GP may not be able to help either and doesn’t know what is causing your condition. After a few months or years with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS),  you may come to believe that there is little that can be done to help you. That it’s not possible to find out what is causing your IBS. 

This may have started when your GP told you that little can be done. And this makes sense from a GP’s point of view: Doctors call IBS a ‘functional gastrointestinal disorder’ which means the gastrointestinal tract doesn’t show any physical abnormalities but functions abnormally.

A doctor usually gives an IBS diagnosis using a process of exclusion. This means that once all their tests come back normal but symptoms persist, the diagnosis is given. As the underlying cause isn’t known, a GP can then only treat the symptoms using drugs or surgery or you may be told there is nothing that can be done or told simply to eat more fiber or Metamucil.

But this is NOT the final answer. Most of these treatments don’t work well, because they don’t address the underlying causes of your digestive disorder.

If you take one thing away from this post, I want it to be the hope and understanding that is possible to improve your IBS. You can increase the diversity of foods you eat. It is possible to lessen the constant worry about your digestion and improve your wellbeing and quality of life.

 

What is causing your IBS?

As a Functional Medicine practitioner, I aim to get to the root cause of health issues. This is important! Only by finding the root cause, can we weed out the health issue for good. Imagine you are pulling a tough weed out of your garden. The weed breaks and leaves the roots behind. By addressing only the symptoms, it’s as if you are pulling this weed out of your garden. When the roots remain, the weed will grow back.

Some of the possible causes of IBS include bacterial and fungal overgrowth, possible parasites, slow digestion, food intolerances, gluten disorders, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth  (SIBO), emotional wellbeing and stress, and carbohydrate maldigestion. For example, in some people, toxins released during an infection may damage nerves, which in turn can cause abnormal muscular contraction of the bowel, especially when stressed.

 

Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO)

We normally have about 1.5kg (3 lbs) of bacteria, about 500 species, in our gut. Usually, most of these bacteria live in our large intestine and our small intestine is relatively sterile. But bacteria can also take over our small intestine and then SIBO develops. These bacteria then ferment food in the small intestine causing bloating, gas and belching, diarrhea, and constipation.

Significantly, up to 80% of people with IBS, have SIBO.  That’s far more than in the general population. Therefore, in people with symptoms, it makes sense to test for SIBO. The most common test is a breath test which measures gas production by the bacteria in the small intestine.

If SIBO is found, anti-biotics or diet, anti-microbials, and probiotics maybe used to resolve it. This is great news for people with IBS! A natural approach may also focus on increasing motility (i.e. the speed at which food passes through the small intestine) to clear out the bacteria in the small intestine. Proper digestion is also important. Digestion requires enough digestive enzymes and stomach acid. Eating mindfully in a low-stress environment (not at your desk) also helps. 

 

Food sensitivities

But unfortunately, the causes of IBS in everyone aren’t the same. Candida, or a parasitic protozoa such as Blastocystis Hominis and Dientamoeba Fragilis can cause IBS type symptoms.

Another major cause of IBS is food sensitivities. These are not true allergies but low-grade reactions to foods that may not be seen until several hours or days after eating. British medical journal Gut found that eliminating foods identified through delayed food allergy testing (IgG antibodies) resulted in dramatic improvements in IBS symptoms.

When working with an individual, I may start with diet, removing the possible trigger foods for IBS. This may take the form of a low FODMAP diet. FODMAPs are sugars that are fermented by our gut bacteria and this may cause bloating and IBS type symptoms in some people. Monash University, one of the pioneers of the low FODMAP diet, say the diet should be used for 2-6 weeks and not for life. After the elimination phase that removes high FODMAP foods from the diet, the re-introduction phase monitors the individual response to the re-introduction of a high FODMAP food.

But even when trigger foods are identified, I’m still looking to find out why that person has an issue with that food. FODMAP foods tend to be healthy, fibre rich foods, that feed our good gut bacteria, and so we work towards being able to re-introduce these foods.

So overgrowth of bacteria in the small intestine and food intolerances are two major causes of IBS but there are others. These include poor digestion, parasites, stress or previous trauma. In most cases, it is possible to identify your personal causes of IBS – It doesn’t have to be just a label attached to untreatable symptoms. Solutions can be found if you look at the underlying causes and address them.

 

What do I do next?

  1. Try taking digestive enzymes with meals to help break down food while your gut heals. Also, try eating in a mindful way to reduce stress and aid digestion.
  2. Try an elimination diet for 30 days such as a Low FODMAP diet, or a diet which removes the common triggers of gut issues: dairy, gluten, added sugar, alcohol, yeast, eggs, corn, soy, and peanut. Dairy, gluten, added sugar and excessive alcohol are the most important triggers to remove. After 30 days, re-introduce foods systematically one by one to isolate which foods are causing your symptoms.
  3. Test for SIBO, food sensitivities, parasites or other gut issues through a practitioner to help identify your root causes. A practitioner can help you identify which tests, if any, may help you. They will also be able to help identify your root causes by taking a detailed health history and symptoms analysis.
  4. Repair the gut once the cause of IBS has been removed through repopulation with good bacteria and repairing increased intestinal permeability (leaky gut)

By taking steps such as these, and seeking out the underlying causes of IBS, you can really improve your health and finally overcome your digestive disorder.

 


Stephen Ward (MSc) is trained in assessing the root cause of your health issues and together, we can work this out.  We will also look at improving other areas of your health as we assess your health status using the Functional Medicine model.

Call 0416720981 or BOOK ONLINE to arrange a time for Free 20 Minute Intro consultation.

Alternatively, send me a message and I’ll get back to you ..