This is part of a series on “leaky gut” (intestinal permeability) to read about what leaky gut is and 11 signs that you have it, read here.
It’s very common for people eating the Standard Australian Diet, or other Western diet, to struggle with gut function and auto-immunity. This does not mean that it’s “normal”, and that we can do nothing about it!
Leaky gut is one of the root causes of many of today’s chronic diseases and has been called a “danger signal for autoimmune diseases”…
How Auto-Immunity begins
When intestinal permeability is increased beyond normal, macro-molecules enter the bloodstream. The immune system, which is always on guard for potential pathogens, is waiting for them! As it doesn’t recognise these macro-molecules, it raises the alarm and the body then makes antibodies to these macro-molecules. If those macro-molecules are gluten, your body makes antibodies to gluten. If it’s dairy, your body makes antibodies to dairy.
OK, so now I have a reaction to a particular food, that’s it right?
That’s just the beginning unfortunately… As human tissue structure appears very similar to the targeted macro-molecule, components of the body’s immune system target one or more types of your own tissue e.g. the thyroid. This is known as molecular mimicry and results in human tissue being damaged as collateral damage, and the process of autoimmunity begins.
The tissue that is the target of the antibodies depends on that person’s weakest link. For instance, gluten cross-reacts with neurological tissue in some people, thyroid tissue in others, and so on. Remember though, the underlying process of auto-immunity is the same whether it is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, rheumatoid arthritis, or pernicious anemia.
This process continues until the targeted tissue starts to lose function and you go to see the doctor and are then diagnosed with an auto-immune condition. But the actual process may have started years early when the body first started creating these anti-bodies to the macro-molecules and human tissue.
Dr. Alessio Fasano, the chair of pediatric gastroenterology at Massachuesetts General Hospital looks at Celiac disease as a model of auto-immune conditions; The three underlying factors these conditions share are:
- increased intestinal permeability
- an environmental trigger e.g. gluten
- a genetic predisposition
Less than 10% of those with increased genetic disposition progress to a pre-disease state, illustrating the importance of intestinal permeability and environmental triggers in the development of auto-immune diseases.
Intestinal permeability has also been reported to often precede auto-immune diseases.
Why monkeys don’t develop auto-immune diseases…
In 2000, researchers from the University of Maryland School of Medicine identified a protein, called zonulin, which opens gateways, or tight junctions, in the small intestine to let macromolecules into the bloodstream.
As is typical in the history of immunology, zonulin has been further clarified and renamed as haptoglobin 2 precursor.
Next, we will discuss how we can reduce intestinal permeability and repair the mucosal firewall using nutrition and lifestyle.
If you are ready to get your health and vitality back so you can lead a better life but need a little bit of help, I offer one-to-one consultation plans. I will help you get to the root cause of your gut issues, and address it with an effective personalised nutrition and lifestyle plan, that is manageable and sustainable, without nasty side effects.
Call 041672091 or email email@example.com NOW!
Imagine having a condition that severely limits what you can eat, what you can do, and that can strike at any time. Your GP may not be able to help either and doesn’t know what is causing your condition. After a few months or years with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), you may come to believe that there is little that can be done to help you. That it’s not possible to find out what is causing your symptoms. If you have had IBS for a while, you know what I’m talking about, and I really do feel for you!
This belief may have started when your GP told you that little can be done. And this makes sense from a GP’s point of view: Doctors call IBS a ‘functional gastrointestinal disorder’ which means the gastrointestinal tract doesn’t show any physical abnormalities but functions abnormally.
A doctor usually gives an IBS diagnosis using a process of exclusion. This means that once all their tests come back normal but symptoms persist, the diagnosis is given. As the underlying cause isn’t known, a GP can then only treat the symptoms using drugs or surgery or you may be told there is nothing that can be done or told simply to eat more fiber or Metamucil.
But this is NOT the final answer. Most of these treatments don’t work well, because they don’t address the underlying causes of your digestive disorder.
If you take one thing away from this post, I want it to be the hope and understanding that is possible to improve your IBS. You can increase the diversity of foods you eat. It is possible to lessen the constant worry about your digestion and improve your wellbeing and quality of life.
What is causing my IBS?
As a Functional Medicine practitioner, I aim to get to the root cause of health issues. This is important! Only by finding the root cause, can we weed out the health issue for good. Imagine you are pulling a tough weed out of your garden. The weed breaks and leaves the roots behind. By addressing only the symptoms, it’s as if you are pulling this weed out of your garden. When the roots remain, the weed will grow back.
Some of the possible causes of IBS include bacterial and fungal overgrowth, possible parasites, slow digestion, food intolerances, gluten disorders, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), emotional wellbeing and stress, and carbohydrate maldigestion. For example, in some people, toxins released during an infection may damage nerves, which in turn can cause abnormal muscular contraction of the bowel, especially when stressed. This is a disruption of the gut-brain axis which I’ll talk more about later in this article.
Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO)
We normally have about 1.5kg (3 lbs) of bacteria, about 500 species, in our gut. Usually, most of these bacteria live in our large intestine and our small intestine is relatively sterile. But bacteria can also take over our small intestine and then SIBO develops. These bacteria then ferment food in the small intestine causing bloating, gas and belching, diarrhea, and constipation.
Significantly, up to 80% of people with IBS, have SIBO. That’s far more than in the general population. Therefore, in people with symptoms, it makes sense to test for SIBO. The most common test is a breath test which measures gas production by the bacteria in the small intestine.
If SIBO is found, anti-biotics or diet, anti-microbials, and probiotics maybe used to resolve it. This is great news for people with IBS! A natural approach may also focus on increasing motility (i.e. the speed at which food passes through the small intestine) to clear out the bacteria in the small intestine. Proper digestion is also important. Digestion requires enough digestive enzymes and stomach acid. Eating mindfully in a low-stress environment (not at your desk) also helps.
But unfortunately, the causes of IBS in everyone aren’t the same. Candida, or a parasitic protozoa such as Blastocystis Hominis and Dientamoeba Fragilis can cause IBS type symptoms.
Another major cause of IBS is food sensitivities. These are not true allergies but low-grade reactions to foods that may not be seen until several hours or days after eating. British medical journal Gut found that eliminating foods identified through delayed food allergy testing (IgG antibodies) resulted in dramatic improvements in IBS symptoms.
When working with an individual, I may start with diet, removing the possible trigger foods for IBS. This may take the form of a low FODMAP diet. FODMAPs are sugars that are fermented by our gut bacteria and this may cause bloating and IBS type symptoms in some people. Monash University, one of the pioneers of the low FODMAP diet, say the diet should be used for 2-6 weeks and not for life. After the elimination phase that removes high FODMAP foods from the diet, the re-introduction phase monitors the individual response to the re-introduction of a high FODMAP food.
But even when trigger foods are identified, I’m still looking to find out why that person has an issue with that food. FODMAP foods tend to be healthy, fibre rich foods, that feed our good gut bacteria, and so we work towards being able to re-introduce these foods.
So overgrowth of bacteria in the small intestine and food intolerances are two major causes of IBS but there are others. These include poor digestion, parasites, stress or previous trauma.
What if I’ve looked at these causes, and I still have IBS?
In many cases of IBS, our guts have become overly sensitive. Certain foods or a build-up of gas (bloating) affect us more than in other people, even when eating a healthy diet and doing all the right things.
If you have improved your diet, ruled out food sensitivities, and parasites, then your IBS likely involves disturbed neural functioning of the gut-brain axis. In which case, you may need to work with the brain as well as the gut (see what do I do next?).
What do I do next?
In most cases, it is possible to identify your personal causes of IBS – It doesn’t have to be just a label attached to untreatable symptoms. Solutions can be found if you look at the underlying causes and address them.
- Try taking digestive enzymes with meals to help break down food while your gut heals. Also, try eating in a mindful way to reduce stress and aid digestion. Once healed, eating bitters before eating will stimulate the release of these enzymes without a supplement
- Try an elimination diet for 30 days such as a Low FODMAP diet, or a diet which removes the common triggers of gut issues: dairy, gluten, added sugar, alcohol, yeast, eggs, corn, soy, and peanut. Dairy, gluten, added sugar and excessive alcohol are the most important triggers to remove. After 30 days, re-introduce foods systematically one by one to isolate which foods are causing your symptoms.
- Test for SIBO, food sensitivities, parasites or other gut issues through a practitioner to help identify your root causes. A practitioner can help you identify which tests, if any, may help you. They will also be able to help identify your root causes by taking a detailed health history and symptoms analysis.
- Work with the brain If no cause for the IBS can be found in the previous step, then pay attention to the brain. This can involve a variety of approaches and modalities, ranging from activation of the rest and digest arm of the nervous system (parasympathetic), stress reduction, exercise, blood sugar balance, acupuncture, counseling, or hypnotherapy.
- Repair the gut once the cause of IBS has been removed through repopulation with good bacteria and repairing increased intestinal permeability (leaky gut)
By taking steps such as these, and seeking out the underlying causes of IBS, you can really improve your health and finally overcome your digestive disorder.
Stephen Ward (MSc) is trained in assessing the root cause of your health issues and together, we can work this out. We will also look at improving other areas of your health as we assess your health status using the Functional Medicine model.
Call 0491611043 or BOOK ONLINE to arrange a time for Free 20 Minute Intro consultation.
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In the olden days, it was thought that disease was caused by some entity, such bad air (a miasma), that we needed to get rid of in some way.
We now know that this idea of something that we need to get rid of only makes sense in specific cases. Traditional Western medicine works wonders in these areas of infectious disease, surgery, and acute trauma.
But what about preventing or treating chronic health conditions such as auto-immunity, depression, heart disease, diabetes, cancer or Alzheimers?
Or complex cases where the patient has an endless list of symptoms (and is often given an endless list of drugs)?
Are we merely putting bandages on an inevitable disease process? Can anything else be done?
We have a pill for everything but those pills rarely, address the root cause of the disease.
Do diseases actually exist?
You might answer ‘of course they do!’. And you are right, the symptoms obviously exist.
But at the level of our biochemistry, disease is just a result of poor function at the cellular level, which results in poorly functioning organs and systems in the body.
For example, Dr. Dale Brdesen argues that Alzheimer’s is not a single disease, but identifies three major metabolic imbalances that contribute to Alzheimer’s:
- Inflammation from things like poor diet and lifestyle choices, infection, and other issues
- An insufficient amount of supportive elements like hormones, nutrients, and brain-supporting compounds that result in poor functioning and repair of neurons in our brain.
- Toxic exposure to heavy metals like mercury, arsenic, or lead, and biotoxins like mold and other microbes
Based on this understanding, a disease becomes only a convenient label for a collection of imbalances and diseases don’t actually exist in and of themselves. Although a ‘disease’ may present in a seemingly consistent way, in this case ‘Azheimer’s’, the actual causes associated with that disease and the imbalances in the body may be different.
And that’s why Dr. Rangan Chatterjee has boldly declared that he can make diseases disappear. His approach to making ‘diseases’ disappear is largely based in Nutritional Therapy and Functional Medicine, and addressing the root cause of the disease rather than the symptoms.
So, What is Functional Medicine?
Functional Medicine is the identification of the root causes of the imbalances that give rise to disease.
Once the root causes are identified, they can be addressed through personalised and targeted lifestyle interventions such as nutrition, sleep, rest, and movement. Pharmaceuticals may be required in some cases, but lifestyle interventions will always benefit the patient.
In our Alzheimer’s example, inflammation and poor functioning of neurons can be addressed in part by nutrition and lifestyle changes. Similarly, we can reduce our exposure to toxins by changing our environment and take steps to eliminate toxins that are stored in the body (sauna anyone?).
“The doctor of the future will give no medicine, but will instruct his patient in the care of the human frame, in diet and in the cause and prevention of disease.” – Thomas Edison
Functional Medicine sees a return to this care for the body and answers questions such as:
Why do you have this problem in the first place?
Why has function been lost?
What can we do to restore function?
Functional Medicine in Action
Functional medicine is based in systems theory.
A system is a cohesive grouping of interrelated and interdependent parts
Because of this interconnectedness and interdependence, our digestive health may have an impact on our immune system and hormonal system and vice versa. And inflammation and oxidative stress may affect all systems in our body, and are in-turn affected by our diet and stress levels.
Functional Medicine looks at the functioning of the systems within the body, and looks to improve their functioning to regain or maximise health. We use nutrition and lifestyle interventions (e.g. rest, sleep, movement), rather than a single pharmaceutical. This allows us to target multiple systems in the body at the same time and address root causes, rather than symptoms.
We may look at environmental toxins, genetics, nutrient status, poorly functioning detoxification, cellular energy pathways. Advanced laboratory testing may be used to help get to the root cause where necessary…
This process may take some time and money, but it is generally a very effective investment. Although it may appear expensive, resolving issues at their root, may reduce the amount spent on healthcare in the future. Of course, the most important outcome is that you get back your health and vitality and that you feel the difference.